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November 29, 2012

Burn Wound healing and Laughter

Laughter is free, it has many positive effects on the physical and mental health and no known negative side effects. Laughter binds people together, infact it's the shortest distance between two people.
A team of researches from the University of Leeds, UK, found laughing habits in people suffering from wounds can accelerate healing compared to using advanced technology.

The effect of laughter may include:

  • Laughter stimulates the release of endorphines, when the endorphins level increase in the brain, the pain perception decreases leding to a decrease in pain.
  • When we laugh, the diaphragm will move leading the blood to move more smoothly throughout the body icreasing the ability of the body to use oxygen and this may lead to faster healing of the wound.
  • Laugh raises the activity and number of natural killer cells (NK cells). NK cells are cells attack and play a major role in rejection of viral infected cells and some types of tumor cells. NK cells are part of the immune system.
  • Helps prevent heart disease ( astudy done in the University of Maryland Medical Center)
  • An increase in Immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibody which help to fight upper respiratory tract infection. There are five types of Immunoglobulins in our body (IgA, IgG, IgM, IgE, IgD).
  • An increase in immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody, they are the most common type of antibodies in our body and play an important role in fighting viral and bacterial infections, they also cross the placenta (the only Ig that has this ability) and help in protecting the fetus.
  • An increase in immunoglobulin M (IgM) which are the first antibody type produced in response to an infection.
  • An increase in T helper cells, therse are the cells attacked by HIV virus.
  • An increase in gamma interferon which regulates the body's ability to turn on the immune system.
  • An increased in in complement 3 which is part of our immune system that helps antibodies pierce through infected or dysfunctional cells inorder to destroy them.
  • An increase in number and activation of T cells as well as an increase in the ratio of helper/suppressor T cells.
  • An increase in the number of B cells, they are the cells which make all the immunoglobulins.
The effect of laughter on stress:
  • Lowers dopamine level which is associated with elevated blood pressure.
  • Lowers epinephrine.
  • Lowers growth hormone level in the blood.
  • Lowers cortisol level.
  • Lowers other stress hormones.
  • Lowers blood pressure and heart rate after initial short rise.
  • Reduces anxiety and fear.
  • Relaxes our muscles.
  • improves mood.
A stronge immune system is important in burn wound healing. Laughter boosts the immune system and increases the number of immunoglobulins which help fight infections. Infection is the most common complication of burns and is the major cause of death in burn victims. Make use of this easy to use strong medicine as it will not only make you happy, but will make everyone around you happy, it's contagious.

This information is not intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice; it should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. Call 911 for all medical emergencies

See also The effect of stress on the skin, Burn wound care at home.


March 24, 2012

Burn Victims Can Reduce Pain Through Virtual Reality Games

In August 2011, Randy McAllister suffered third degree burns while trying to save equipment from a fire in wheat field. Today, he says that when he goes for his burn treatments, "it gets me to the threshold where I can't stand it, but then I find out it can hurt even more," says the 60-year-old farmer. During five weeks at the Oregon Burn Center at Legacy Emanuel Medical Center in Portland, Oregon, McAllister needed repeated rounds of burn wound care to remove dead tissue from his extensive burns. "It's more painful than the fire."

Then a nurse told him about SnowWorld, a computer game designed to help burn patients escape from agonizing pain by distracting their minds during burn treatments. During his next wound care session, McAllister wore headphones and looked through virtual reality goggles. He found himself floating through an icy canyon rendered almost three-dimensional by the wrap-around goggles. By tapping on a computer mouse, McAllister fired snowballs at animated penguins, snowmen and dolphins in the canyon to a soundtrack of upbeat music. And the virtual world made his real-world pain less overwhelming.

It's one of the most successful examples of non-drug pain management techniques to emerge from the work of psychologists and neuroscientists. The search for non-drug options has gained urgency amid a worsening epidemic of overdoses linked to prescription opioid pain relievers such as oxycodone and hydrocodone, which killed 14,800 Americans in 2008 - more those killed from heroin and cocaine overdoses combined.

In clinical trials, burn patients using SnowWorld reported 35 to 50 percent reductions in pain. The system was developed at the University of Washington by research scientist Hunter Hoffman and psychologist David Patterson, with input from burn care experts at Harborview Burn Center in Seattle.

Virtual reality therapy isn't a substitute for opioids and other pain-relieving medications, but it can boost the effectiveness of drugs - and possibly reduce the dosage. Researchers who developed the technology say it might also help people with chronic pain syndromes, although those clinical trials are incomplete.

Theresa McSherry, burn and wound care coordinator at the Oregon Burn Center, says burn patients need more options. Pharmaceutical research has provided safer and more effective anesthetics and opioid pain relievers, but drugs have limits.

"You can't safely give burn patients enough medication to provide adequate pain relief," says McSherry, a registered nurse who has worked with burn patients for more than 10 years. A grant from the Legacy Foundation allowed the Oregon Burn Center to buy the $66,000 virtual reality system in August. About a dozen are being used worldwide.

Preventing pain not only relieves immediate suffering, but also seems to help burn patients weeks and months later. Patterson, the UW psychologist, says the amount of pain during treatment is a stronger predictor of depression, anxiety and distress six months to a year later than the extent of burns or the length of hospital stay. "If you can control more of the acute pain, it can result in better long-term outcomes," he says.

Scientists have known for decades that the human brain can interpret the same signal transmitted by a pain receptor as painful or not, depending on what a person is thinking. Mood and expectation also play a big role. German researchers recently showed that a sad mood consistently makes people experience more pain. In another recent experiment, tricking people to think time passed more quickly reduced perception of pain.

Entering a rich, three-dimensional, sound-filled virtual reality might use so much of the brain's attention resources that less is available to process pain. "We're taking advantage of the malleability of human perception to deliberately divert mental resources away from the pain," Hoffman says.

Burn patients come to associate the sights and sounds of the wound treatment room with excruciating pain so that just entering the room can amplify the suffering, Hoffman says. Putting on headphones and goggles blocks the anxiety-stirring sights and sounds.

But distraction of attention appears to be the main way that virtual reality reduces pain. Hoffman's team has compared differing gear and found that the more realistic and "immersive" the gear, the greater the reduction in pain reported.

That matches McAllister's experience. His burned fingers made it difficult to hold the computer mouse during his SnowWorld experience. When the mouse slipped from his hand and he lost engagement with the snowball throwing, the pain of the procedure immediately intruded.

McAllister expects to continue intensive physical therapy for several months to regain more use of his fingers and hands. He may need additional surgery to remove scar tissue and increase joint mobility. But he's optimistic about returning to work next year.

Patterson believes virtual reality can help treat chronic pain as well. The UW researchers also developed a virtual reality program that induces hypnosis. The goal is to use post-hypnotic suggestion to change the way the brain handles chronic pain signals long after therapy sessions.

If you or someone you know suffers an injury such as third degree burns or smoke inhalation, you should call Kramer & Pollack LLP in Mineola, New York so that the personal injury attorneys in that firm can determine whether another party has legal liability for injuries suffered, and if the injured party has a strong legal case.