Acute compartment syndrome is considered a medical emergency that requires immediate surgical treatment. The surgical procedure is called a fasciotomy which is simply done by making a long incision in the fascia to release the pressure building inside.
Subacute compartment syndrome is treated surgically by urgent fasciotomy.
Chronic compartment syndrome can be treated conservatively if it's in the lower limb (this may include the use of anti-inflammatory drugs, rest and elevation of the limb). If there is no improvement and the symptoms persist surgery may be necessary.
If the pressure in the compartment is not relieved, this may lead to functional impairment of the affected area due to permanent damage to the nerves and muscles. In more severe cases limb amputation may be needed as a result of death of the muscles in the affected compartment which resulted from the lack of blood supply.
This information is not intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice; it should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. Call 911 for all medical emergencies.