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Tissue expansion is a procedure that allows the body to grow extra skin. It is done by inserting a silicone balloon expander under the skin near the area to be repaired (such as scars happening after burns) and then gradually filling the balloon with salt water over time causing the skin to stretch and grow (keeping the skin under tension causes new cells to form).

Tissue expansion is used in conditions such as breast reconstruction surgery, repairing burns, scars, large birth marks, hairy areas such as the scalp (the extra skin is still able to grow hair).

After the skin stretches the scaring is surgically removed and the expanded skin is extended to meet healthy un-scarred skin.

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One of the most common causes of hospital admission of pediatric patients is burns. Most pediatric burns occur at home. The most common cause of burns in young children is exposure to hot liquids (scald injury) such as hot water. Contact with hot objects is the second most common cause of burn in young children. Pediatric burns differ from adult burns in many aspects.

Their skin is more sensitive and less resistant to heat and because it is harder for them to escape from the burning object, this may lead to longer exposure which may increase the burn severity.

Pediatrics have a smaller body size than adults with a greater body surface area in relation to their weight. Fluid loss is proportionally greater in young children when compared to the same percentage of burn in adults because of their smaller circulating volume and different distribution of body fluids leading to more rapid onset of fluid and electrolyte disturbance and imbalance. Therefore pediatrics especially infants develop hypovolemic shock faster and fluid replacement should be started as soon as possible which is calculated according to certain formulas.

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Burn injury may be severe and may involve any part of the body including the face. Facial scars are considered in general as a cosmetic problem, whether or not they are hypertrophic. There are several ways to reduce the appearance of facial scars. Often the scar is simply cut out and closed with tiny stitches, leaving a thinner less noticeable scar.

If the scar lies across the natural skin creases (or lines of relaxation) the surgeon may be able to re-position the scar using Z- Plasty to run parallel to these lines, where it will be less conspicuous.

Some facial scars can be softened using a technique called dermabration, a controlled scraping of the skin using a hand held high speed rotary wheel. Dermabration leaves a smoother surface to the skin but it won’t completely erase the scar.

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Nosocomial infection also known as Hospital acquired infection (HAI) is an infection that the patient acquires when he/she is admitted to a hospital or a health care facility for any reason other than that infection. The infection should have not been present or incubating prior to the patient’s being admitted to the hospital.

Certain factors may affect the susceptibility of the patient to get nosocomial:

  1. The age of the patient: elderly and infants are more susceptible for infection.
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Nosocomial infection also known as Hospital acquired infection (HAI) is an infection that the patient acquires when he/she is admitted to a hospital or a health care facility for any reason other than that infection. The infection should have not been present or incubating prior to the patient’s being admitted to the hospital.

Origin of Nosocomial infection:

Nasocomial infection can be external (from out side the body) or internal (from the inside of the body).

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Nosocomial infection also known as Hospital acquired infection (HAI) is an infection that the patient acquires when he/she is admitted to a hospital or a health care facility for any reason other than that infection. The infection should have not been present or incubating prior to the patient’s being admitted to the hospital.

Sites of Nosocomial infections:

  • Burns and wounds: When there is a burn injury the skin becomes more vulnerable for all kinds of infections not only nosocomial infections and this may increase the risk of sepsis and septic shock.
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Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that has many complications, among which is the effect of diabetes on the blood vessels leading to damage, narrowing and may lead to blockage of the blood vessels, leading to alteration of blood perfusion and subsequent reduction in the oxygen and nutritional delivery to the tissues which will affect wound healing. Diabetes can affect the nerves leading to nerve damage (diabetic neuropathy); nerves affected are responsible for temperature, pressure, texture and pain sensation. The nerves of the lower legs and feet when affected can lead to insensitivity to temperature and pain in the lower legs and feet and patients may experience numbness and tingling sensation in these areas.

Diabetic patients with neuropathy have an increased risk of burn injuries. These burns may happen from soaking the feet in hot water, heating pads, walking on hot surface, and contact with a warming device such as heaters. Because of the impaired sensation of the feet in these patients, they may sustain a burn injury without being aware of it. These patients have poor wound healing due to the effect of diabetes on the nerves and blood vessels and the increased risk of wound infection in diabetic patients.

Burns in diabetic patients even when they are minor may lead to ulceration of the wound, serious infection and even amputation of the limb. Therefore preventing and early recognition of burns in diabetic patients is very important.

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Burns to the eyes can be caused by many different things such as chemicals, hot air, steam, sunlight, welding equipments etc.

Chemical burns:

They can be caused by solid chemicals, liquid chemicals, chemical fumes or powdered material. Damage to the eyes may be minimized if they are washed quickly. The most dangerous chemical burns involve strong acids or alkali (base) substances.