Articles Posted in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

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Also known as Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome is a life threatening lung condition in which fluid accumulates in the lung leading to low levels of oxygen in the blood.

When a healthy person breathes, air will enter the nose and mouth passing through the trachea (windpipe) to reach the alveoli (air sacs) of the lungs. Oxygen will pass from the alveoli to small blood vessels surrounding the alveoli called the capillaries and from the capillaries to the bloodstream where it will be carried to different parts of the body. When the lung is injured from many causes including severe burns fluid and blood will leak from the capillaries into the alveoli, this will prevent air from entering the alveoli leading to decreased oxygen in the bloodstream and in turn decrease the oxygen supply to different organs which will affect their function. The lungs become inflamed, the inflammation will lead to scaring and fibrosis of the lungs causing the lungs to become stiff. This stiffness of the lung with fluid will make breathing very difficult for the patient.

Causes may include:

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On October 6, 2011, the Fire Smoke Coalition launched the first Smoke Inhalation Treatment Database for use by EMTs, first responders and medical professionals throughout the world.

In the United States, residential fires are the third leading cause of fatal injury and the fifth most common cause of unintentional injury death, yet the majority of fire-related fatalities are NOT caused by severe burns–they are cause by smoke inhalation.

Despite the amount of fires in the U.S. decreasing each year, the amount of civilians dying in fires is actually increasing. For example, in 2009, 1,348,500 fires were attended by public fire departments, a decrease of 7.1 percent from the year before; however, 3,010 civilian fire deaths occurred, which is an increase of 9.3 percent.

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On May 19, the Fire Smoke Coalition sent out a press release saying that it “applauds the Congressional Fire Services Institute’s (CFSI) National Advisory Council (NAC) passage of A Resolution to Address a New Epidemic: Smoke Inhalation at its April board meeting.” CFSI is a leading non-partisan policy institute designed to educate members of Congress on the needs of our nation’s fire and emergency services.

In its resolution, CFSI notes that there is mounting proof, obtained through atmospheric monitoring on fire grounds throughout the U.S., that hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is a predominant toxicant found in fire smoke. The resolution calls for educating the fire service about the dangers of smoke inhalation–including those of HCN–through support of a national education program, the development of HCN poisoning treatment protocols for all local and state emergency medical services (EMS), and efforts by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to establish a national database of smoke inhalation injuries, medical complications and deaths linked to HCN.

To learn even more about the Fire Smoke Coalition and about HCN poisoning, click on this link.