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The Effect of Sun on the Skin

The sun plays an important role in the manufacture of vitamin D. The sun has ultraviolet rays which can be harmful to the skin. There are three types of rays, Ultraviolet A, B and C. Ultraviolet A rays penetrate the skin more deeply than ultraviolet B. it’s responsible for wrinkles, skin tanning and premature aging of the skin. Ultraviolet B rays affect the epidermis which is the outer layer of the skin and is responsible for sunburns. Ultraviolet C rays are absorbed almost completely by the ozone layer. Both A and B rays can harm the skin and can cause skin cancer.


The skin is held together in a smooth and a firm way by a protein called collagen. UVA rays damage collagen leading to the formation of wrinkles.


People often believe that tanning is healthy but it is not. A tan actually means that damage has been done to the skin. Melanocytes are the cells producing melanin which is the pigment responsible for skin color. When the skin is exposed to the sun the melanocytes produce more melanin to protect the skin and this pigment creates the tan.

Sunburns: (see sunburns part I, part II).

Skin cancer: (see Basal cell carcinoma, Squamous cell and melanoma).


  • Decrease sun exposure and avoid exposure to sun during peak hours (between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m.)
  • Wear protective clothes such as long sleeved shirts, long pants, a hat and sunglasses.
  • Use a broad spectrum sunscreen with a sun protection factor of at least 15 or greater. Apply the sunscreen to all exposed areas 30 minutes before sun exposure, reapply sunscreen every 2 hours and after sweating or swimming.
  • Check your skin for any lesion that recently appeared or any changes in pre existing lesions


This information is not intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice; it should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. Call 911 for all medical emergencies.

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