Necrotizing Fasciitis (NF) which is also known as “flesh eating bacteria” is a serious, potentially fatal infection involving the deep layers of the skin, the subcutaneous tissue and fascia. Necrotizing Fasciitis is a rare infection caused by bacteria in which 1 out of 4 people who get the infection die from it. Based on a surveillance from the Center of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), it is estimated that Necrotizing Fasciitis causes 10.000 to 15.000 infections each year in the United Stated, resulting in 2000 to 3000 deaths.
There are two types of necrotizing fasciitis, Type I describes a polymicrobial infection (caused by more than one type of bacteria), it is more common and usually occurs in immunocompromised patients such as patients with chronic renal failure or diabetus mellitus whereas Type II describes a monomicrobial infection (caused by one type of bacteria), this type is less common and most type II cases are caused by Group a streptococcus. many types of bacteria can cause necrotizing fasciitis Group A streptococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringes, bacteriods, E coli and Pseudomonas.
Necrotizing fasciitis is characterized by rapid destruction of tissue caused by toxins released from these bacteria. These bacteria can spread from the site of infection at the skin to other areas including the bloodstream which may lead to septic shock and death therefore early diagnosis and aggressive treatment reduces the risk of complications.